You should know that the technology that we drive daily and that we often misuse and do not take advantage of, in order to reach us, goes through certain processes that we do not know.
All of this often involves electronics, programming, design, and other implicit sciences, so that we have a mobile phone or a computer in our hands. When we listen to some of them they make noise to us, and we think that it is something foreign. But it is the opposite, they mix a lot in these areas.
That is why this article is going to talk about one of them, which is cryptology. Here you will find just an open mouth about this interesting topic, with a brief history through ancient civilizations and their functions today.
What is cryptology and what is it for?
Cryptology is a science that has been present in humanity in various civilizations, thanks to her, good and bad people have been able to achieve their goals at many important points throughout our history.
The word comes from the Greek language and it is divided into 2; “Krypto”, that refers to a mystery, something hidden or secret, and “Logos”, which may well mean symbol or logo as understood, but in this case it is attributed to the study.
As a quick conclusion we can say that cryptology is the science that is responsible for deciphering secret messages, and also the way to hide a message in plain sight, through a communications channel, which could be a computer network.
To achieve this, cryptology uses what is known as encoding, This is used to convert a common message into a code that can only be understood by the person who has the decoding information in their possession.
Basically it is an art that allows to protect the information, in order to avoid that even if it falls into the wrong hands, it can be interpreted as it really is.
History and evolution of cryptology How has it improved over the years?
It is possible that cryptology was already used as a method of communication since the time of the Egyptians, since their texts required a code to be decoded. Still, this cannot be called cryptology as we know it today.
The first to actually encrypt the information, of which a record could be obtained, were the Romans when their empire was in full swing and they were conquering the known world.
The encryption method used by them is the famous “Cipher Cesar”, with which it is said that the Romans shared their maneuvers and battle strategies to prevent their plans from falling into enemy hands.
This allowed only generals to have access to the information carried by the messengers on the scrolls. This simple method consisted of a certain displacement of the letters according to their position in the alphabet.
For example, if the letter should be written “TO” with an offset of 5, then counting from the “TO” 5 letters, the corresponding letter is the “F”, and they in different occasions could change the displacement number up to the number 24, which allowed some complexity for their enemies.
About 800 years later, an arab mathematician named Al Kindi, he devised a technique that allowed him to break the cesar cipher, by counting the most frequent letters.
In general, the letter that is repeated the most in a text of our language is the “AND”. Yes in an encrypted text the letter “J” it is repeated more than all, probably the displacement number is 4, because from J to E there are 4 letters in between.
Later, we know that in the 2 world wars that our race has suffered, cryptology played a very important role in its development.
Currently, much of the advances in it have been vetoed from the general public by almost all governments in the world. In his time the NSA of the United States, prohibited any distribution of materials of this type, because they kept all these techniques hidden for their espionage operations.
Over time these restrictions have given way a bit, and that is why almost all the technology we handle on a daily basis is encrypted. Such is the case of WhatsApp messaging, cryptocurrencies, banking transactions and hundreds of examples.
What are the main disciplines framed within the cryptological technique?
Cryptology encompasses 4 major disciplines that make this art a complete science. Here’s what they are:
It comes from two words in Greek, which are “Kripto”, that we already mentioned refers to the occult, and “Graphé” which means writing.
Many people tend to think that the cryptography is true science, but it is not, since only it is a discipline that is part of cryptology.
For its part, cryptography is the discipline of cryptology that allows us to distort the message, in a way that only those who have the keys can understand what is being transmitted.
In our era it plays an important role, since cryptography has been used for 10 years to transfer value from one point to another, without the need for intermediaries and without risk of interference, this is the famous Bitcoin.
It can be said that it is the complete opposite of cryptography, since this seeks to breach the weak points of complex cryptographic systems. Once its objective has been achieved, it allows the information to be correctly interpreted. This discipline is also divided into two Greek words, hidden or secret and “Analyein”, which means to unleash or discover.
It can serve to strengthen cryptography techniques, Because by finding the vulnerabilities of an encrypted system, they can be corrected and security increased.
This discipline is similar to cryptography, but its difference is that it is a little more complex and novel. As we saw in cryptography, encryption allows you to send a message with hidden and meaningless content to someone who does not have the keys to decode it.
On the other hand, steganography allows in addition to sending an encrypted message, hide the existence of the message, in such a way that its existence is not even suspected.
In computing, steganography allows you to send information compressed and hidden in files video, images or documents, which makes it very difficult to detect hidden messages in common files.
Since everything has its counterpart, stegoanalysis fulfills the opposite functions to those of steganography, so it is responsible for detecting in which files the encrypted messages are hidden.
Cryptology in the digital age How does this system work in computer security?
Despite not realizing, cryptology has been inserted in our society in all the things we do on a daily basis, to be more precise crypto.
But, it should be noted that before this was reserved only for the use of governments, to protect war secrets and all things that can harm the security of a country.
Thanks to the great advancement of the Internet, this science was increasingly required in these environments to avoid as far as possible, the unfortunate virtual scams, hacks and frauds.
That is why all information travels through different types of encryption, some more complex than others. But, This is the only way also that the information does not lose its way and reaches its destination intact. A clear example is bank transfers, payments in cryptocurrencies, text messages, some types of web calls, emails, among many others.
If you have any questions, leave them in the comments, we will answer you as soon as possible, and it will surely be of great help to more members of the community. Thank you! 😉