Both large companies and any Internet site have servers that allow the transfer of data through a complex system. In these the record of operations is housed.
Hostings are known as Data Center. Which are physical spaces where there is a large number of computers that have a high level of security, cooling and infrastructure.
So that you know in detail what this is about, we have prepared this article for you. You will be able to find what it is used for, what the objectives are and all the necessary components for its design.
What is a Data Center of a computer network and what is it for?
A “Data Center”, also known in our country as “Data center”, is a space where different hardware equipment and physical components that are necessary for the processing of digital information are stored. Although it is true that there are servers in a virtual way and they have a lower maintenance cost, they are not as widely used when choosing a greater data security.
DCs make a company’s operations housed in one place and they get the guarantee that they are safe. This is because they have a optimal environment and a network design according to the needs of the operations.
To create a Data Center it is necessary to take into account some factors before its creation. For example, your installation cost, maintenance labor, electricity-related infrastructure, and any other natural or intentional hazards that may exist at that location.
What are the objectives of a data center on a computer network?
The objectives that a Data Center network must meet are:
- Scalability: Data Centers must have an architectural design that allows the increased work capacity without the need to compromise normal operations and operation. For this, it is necessary to have sufficient equipment and an optimal installation.
- Flexibility: This objective refers to the possibility of adapt the Data Center with the technological and commercial needs of the clients that host your data on servers. This means that the prices and contractual terms must be dynamic to adapt to the current situation of the companies.
- High availability: This is perhaps one of the most sought-after objectives by clients. The Data Center must offer a continuous service to users, that is, they must not be out of service at any time. To achieve this, it is necessary to have a network design that allows different components to act as clones to supplant the activities of the main servers when they go down.
- Performance: data centers must be used to the full. This means that the performance will be better when it can be implemented and maximized in the combination of having the right amount of servers in relation to the resources that are managed in the DC.
- Energy efficiency: It is one of the issues that most concerns the owners of the Data Center. This is because the optimal temperature, so that computers that work in physical space do not present breakdowns, it is between 21 and 23 degrees. Therefore, cooling is an important objective that must be met in order not to have so much electricity consumption. In addition, certain standards must be established so that all components can function optimally with the better energy efficiency. For this, it is necessary to acquire servers and other types of state-of-the-art hardware.
History and evolution of data centers How have they changed over the years?
While the Herman Hollerith drilling machine is known as the first data automation in the late 19th century, It was not until 1946 when it was created, for the United States Army, the system called Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer Science. This model is considered the first general process computer. In 1960 the first IBM System data processing units were created, which produced the first leap to process information in large quantities.
This made 11 years later, the company Intel present its model 4004, with which the software could be customized to integrate with different functions in any device that belonged to the network. At the end of the 70s the first LAN network with 255 computers was created at Chase Bank in Manhattan. Data transfer could reach up to 2.5 Mb / s, thus becoming the first data center service as we know it today.
Do not forget about the first personal computers that appeared on the market in 1981. With these PCs began to share files between different users, making it possible to create more efficient LAN networks. In these structures, the client computers that could access the storage of another server PC stood out. From the 90’s, companies chose to have data centers in physical locations close to them.
This generated that, from the appearance of connectivity through Internet, this operation becomes more efficient. So the industries allocated greater resources to obtain much larger rooms. The North American Company VMWare started selling your product Workstation, which had similarities to the Apple Virtual PC and it was intended to meet the needs of companies. Shortly after the server model is launched ESX, which prevents the adjacent OS from being necessary.
Years later, tools from Amazon Web Services, Sun Microsystems and Facebook’s Open Compute Project appeared. These began to improve technical specifications that helped increase the efficiency in the practice of transferring data between network components. At present the Data center work in accordance with the client’s ability to support demands through the cloud. This does improve infrastructure costs for all participants.
Components and equipment needed for the data center What devices are needed?
The necessary components to build a Data Center are:
- Physical unit for compact station: This item is required to place all the components of the Data center. The system of noise and moisture insulation, security against theft, fire and natural disasters. In addition, it should be located in an area as cold as possible so that the equipment works better and does not require so much electrical power consumption to cool the servers.
- Transformer: It is necessary to have an electrical system that regulates the voltage of the power and maintains it at the optimal level for the devices. It is also necessary to have support equipment in case of power failure so that they are not out of service.
- Electric board: as well as is necessary the transformer, it is also important to have a proper electrical installation so that it can transmit the correct voltage and does not damage the equipment. In addition, different circuits must be incorporated so that, in the event of an outage due to electrical failure, it does not allow the rest of the installation to fail.
- UPS: these teams work as batteries that make up the electrical circuit. In the event of a power failure, the equipment connected to this device will not suffer any interruption due to the remaining charge of the devices. Uninterruptible Power Supply.
- PDU: the work of these components is distribute power through the outlet to which the network equipment that is located in the racks.
- Video surveillance circuit: the installation of cameras, monitors and any other element that can help to control the correct operation of the equipment installed in the Data center. It is also used to prevent theft and to respond to natural disasters.
- False floor: also called raised floor. The function is create a chamber between the firm floor and this sheet of plates in which the racks and other components are installed. This helps to route all the wiring through the floor and to be able to access them in an easy way.
- Access control to restricted areas: Mechanisms should be created to control that unauthorized persons can access sensitive handling locations and equipment breakdown. Controls can be created using magnetic cards or fingerprints.
- Racks: thanks to that they can stack teams, these cabinets in which the servers are installed help to keep the place in order and save a lot of space.
- Cabling by structure: This is not a minor topic. since the cables must be installed in a correct, orderly and neat way to connect the different equipment. The exact use of the twisted pair cables to be used must be considered.
- Servers, other computers and switch: nothing would make sense if the computer equipment that must be connected to each other is not used to provide the data transfer service continuously. For this, it is necessary that these servers have the latest technology and consume the least amount of energy possible. In addition, you must have routers and modems that allow secure Internet connection.
Most used models for data center design, which are the most efficient?
The most used designs to create a Data Center are the following:
The triangle design is called the structure that is made in a Data Center where the sides of the geometric figure are the links in the spanning tree between the server and two computers.
The square loop design in this case is generated when two servers are connected to the 2 access switches so that they can make a distribution through the aggregation method to connect to the Internet.
The loop-free design is done when in the layer 2 there are no cycles, therefore redundant links are maintained in the event of connection errors. It can be made as a design of “OR” or from “U Inverted”. Although this design is not used frequently due to the limitations presented by not being able to extend the Red lan, has its advantages when using STP.
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