How does the WiFi work?   Components + Phases ▷ 2020

When our Internet connection is permanently interrupted or at certain times it becomes slow, we do not realize it, but many times the problem is with our router, since it may have a frequency that is not correct.

It generally happens that in large cities the Internet speed is lower than in less densely populated areas. This happens due to the occupation and overlap of the low-frequency channels of the routing equipment.

Next, we will show you everything you need to know so that you have the best Internet connection through a WiFi network. With this article you will be able to know the difference between a router and a modem, as well as how frequency influences the connection quality.

What is a WiFi router and what is it for?

What is a WiFi router and what is it for?

A WiFi router is an electronic device whose mission is to choose the best route to receive and send data through radio waves by choosing a network based on an administrative distance criterion.

Thanks to this protocol or set of routing rules, hardware can connect two or more devices to each other and with this you can obtain the most appropriate route to efficiently manage the sending and receiving of data.

That is, the routing device acts in two planes, one is a control plane with which it seeks the most effective output of the data, and the other is a forwarding plane, due to this the router is in charge of receiving that data and to send it to devices on another interface.

We do not have to confuse these two planes because forwarding consists of receiving a data packet and delivering it to the output indicated by a table, while the control plane is that it is the procedure of making that table.

Although it is true that the router has different uses, we will dedicate ourselves to the use of Internet distribution in our home or office.

In this way we can say that a WiFi router works as a wireless access door, that is, it is in charge of receiving Internet through the modem and then distributes the signal through radio waves between the different nodes or components of a non-wired network. .

There are different types of router, but the most used today for homes is the mixed one, which has connections through cables and also wireless.

The speed of these teams is 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz providing a connection speed of up to 70 Mbps to 1 Gbps respectively. We will detail this topic in the last part of our post.

Where does the internet from the router come from?

Where does the router internet come from?

Many people are confused believing that the router is the one that emits the Internet signal. This is not the case because the equipment in charge of this function is the modem, which receives the Internet from our operator through a cable that can be coaxial, ADSL or fiber optic.

That is, what the router does is convert the signal that comes from the modem and distribute that signal to the different devices that can be connected to it, while the modem is in charge of receiving the Internet.

In other words, the routing device receives and sends information by radio waves to our computer and at the same time receive instructions from our PC to encode them and send them to the server via an Ethernet cable.

Once the server has translated the requested data, it sends it back to our computer, but first it will have to go through the router that receives that information from the server through the Ethernet cable and it will have to translate the information from the server.

How does the router work to create a wireless Internet signal?

How the router works to create a wireless internet signal

We can say that the routing equipment is a translator and mediator between a device, which is connected to the WiFi network and the server of the Internet page that we want to access.

The operation of a router to create an Internet signal has the following stages:

Connection establishment and authentication

At this time the devices of the wireless network connect and negotiate all the parameters to link through authentication protocols to identify the user.

Although authentication is not mandatory, but it is recommended since rules are also used to establish the encrypted password to access the router.

Internet reception

The router is in communication with the modem, which is in charge of receiving the Internet signal through an Ethernet cable. At this point, the routing hardware encodes this data for later distribution.

Signal coding protocol

Through a pre-established protocol, PPP (for its acronym in English “Point to Point Protocol”) or “Point-to-point protocol”, encodes the information, compresses it and authenticates it.

In this way, it is ready to deliver the data required by the different nodes of the wireless network.

Choosing the best route

When it has the conditions to be able to distribute the data, it begins to look for the best route, based on an administrative distance criterion, for the delivery of the package. That is, it looks for the efficiency between the emission and reception between the router and the device in charge of receiving the data.

Data packet delivery

Once the best route is chosen, it delivers the data packets through radio waves to the computer or any device that made the request for information to the Internet server.

Reverse path

In the same way, when an electronic device needs an Internet connection, it communicates with the router, which thanks to the set of routing rules receives and sends the information, performing a job as translator and mediator between the computer and the server. the page.

What is the frequency of a WiFi signal and how much does it influence the quality of the connection?

The frequency of a WiFi signal is the speed with which they are transmitted and received, from port to port, data packets between the different nodes of the wireless network. To control this transmission speed there are different protocols so that, when they are fulfilled, they can have greater efficiency.

There are currently two widely used frequency bands, both working with 802.11 standards. These two bands are 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz. Where GHz is the unit of measurement that quantifies the period of oscillation in a nanosecond and Hz is equal to 10 raised to the ninth power, that is, 1,000,000,000 (one billion).

If we have to talk about 2.4 GHz, we can say that it is the modulated signal that reaches the reception devices based on 13 channels (plus 1 channel, which is that of the transfer center) of 22 MHz each. As it is low frequency, its range is greater and its speed is around 50 Mbps to 70 Mbps.

What is the frequency of a WiFi signal and how much does it influence the quality of the connection

The characteristic of these channels is that they are narrow and often overlap with other channels of the same frequency that are close to our router.

In this way, when there are many routers operating in a nearby area, speed and internet connection becomes slow since many data packets are being transmitted over the same channels. In this way we can say that the frequency of WiFi has a direct influence on the quality of the Internet connection.

It must also be taken into account that there are different electronic equipments that are close to the routersuch as a wireless mouse or keyboard without a wired connection, which generally transmit in this low frequencytherefore, they occupy some of the 13 channels of the 2.4 GHZ frequency, making them even more occupied. This congestion increases exponentially when it comes to densely inhabited places.

A different case is the other signal frequency which is 5 GHz, where it works with standards equal to or higher than 802.11 n, that is, with 802.11 ac. It works with 24 channels of 20 MHz, the channels can be used without any risk of interference.

This kind of frequency when transmitting with many more channels, prevents overlapping in urban areas. Its transmission speed can reach up to 1 Gbps, but unlike the previous frequency this does not reach that far from the place where the router is located.

If we need to compare the real speed we have in our house with the one we hire our service operator, we need to do a speed test.

This function is also very useful when we need to know if there are people or intruders connected to our network in an unauthorized way because in this way they would occupy more space in the channels and would generate a slow connection.

For these two situations there is an efficient and very practical tool, which is the speed test of our Internet connection. Thanks to this function we can know exactly what our connection speed is.

For this we leave you our speed test

If you have any questions, leave them in the comments, we will answer you as soon as possible, and it will surely be of great help to more members of the community. Thank you! 😉

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